Dewi Sartiami, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Hanifah YM, Idris AB, 2015. Tropical Pest Management, 36(2):103-107, Herren HR, Bird TJ, Nadel DJ, 1987. Journal of Applied Entomology, 121(4):231-236; 17 ref, Muniappan, R., Watson, G. W., Vaughan, L., Gilbertson, R., Noussourou, M., 2012. Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi in Africa. Giga D P, 1994. Introductions and dispersal of Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae), an exotic parasitoid of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom., Pseudococcidae), in Africa. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Seasonal changes of secondary compounds in the phloem sap of cassava in relation to fertilization and to infestation by the cassava mealybug. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 57-69, Matile-Ferrero D, 1977. It grows well in a variety of soils, even those that have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper. PQR database. However, male mealybugs do exhibit a radical change during their life cycle, changing from wingless, ovoid nymphs to wasp-like flying adults. Roots are harvested by pulling the stems and uprooting the whole plant. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 19(2):131-144, Iheagwam EU, 1981. A selection of pictures of Thai cassava production and cassava generics to illustrate the continuing mealybug epidemic affecting huge swaths of cassava in South East Asia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 32(1-2):39-55, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, Gutierrez AP, Cudjoe AR, Adjakloe R, Baumgartner JU, Regev U, 1989. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 16(4):509-515, Fabres G, Nenon JP, Kiyindou A, Biassangama A, 1989. Entomophaga, 30(1):23-29, Rü B le, Iziquel Y, Biassangama A, Kiyindou A, 1990. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); adults on cassava. Males are smaller, gnat-like and have wings. Outbreak of two new cassava pests (Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti) in southwestern Nigeria. African Entomology. The cassava mealybug strongly prefers cassava and other Manihot species; the other host crops and wild hosts are only marginally infested. Biology of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. James B D, Fofanah M, 1992. Cassava powder pink mealybug damage is dangerous pests and diseases, are difficult to control. Regional keys to mealybug faunas, such as the one provided by Williams and Granara de Willink (1992), should, however, be used to support an identification of Phenacoccus, as some species have only a few of the morphological features which are typically found in this genus. Immersion of cassava cuttings in manipueira (a liquid extract from cassava roots) for 60 minutes was found to significantly reduce infestation (Razafindrakoto et al., 1999). Journal of Applied Ecology, 30(4):706-721, Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P, Schulthess F, Herren HR, Baumgprtner JU, Wermelinger B, Lohr B, Ellis CK, 1988. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) arrives in India. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 6(4):339-348, Fabres G, Matile-Ferrero D, 1980. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(3a):1063-1077, Milena Varela A, Belloti AC, Reyes JA, 1979. Population growth patterns for Phenacoccus manihoti Mat-Ferr on cassava in Sierra Leone. The males on the other hand are short-lived as they do not feed at all as adults and only live to fertilize the females. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 42(2):133-138, Neuenschwander P, Sullivan D, 1987. Interference by ants in biological control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Ghana. Comparison of the biotic potential of two coccinellids (Exochomus flaviventris and Hyperaspis senegalensis hottentotta, Col. Coccinellidae), predators of Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. Influence of hyperparasitism on populations of the encyrtid Epidinocarsis lopezi, a parasitoid of Phenacoccus manihoti introduced into the Congo. : Pseudococcidae). http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0047675 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047675. In cassava and on Manihot glaziovii, the pest causes stunting, leaf distortion and loss, dieback and weakening of stems used for crop propagation. Mealybugs are sexually dimorphic: females appear as nymphs, exhibiting reduced morphology, and lack wings, although unlike many female scale insects, they often retain legs and can move. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):247-250, Alphen JJM van, Neuenschwander P, Dijken MJ van, Hammond WNO, Herren HR, 1989. Entomophaga, 29(1):87-93, Souissi R, Rn Ble, 1997. Jahn, Gary C., J. W. Beardsley, and H. González-Hernández (2003). Proceedings of the International Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key. : Encyrtidae) into the Congo in 1982. Some ants, however live in symbiotic relationships with them. 27 November 2003. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Phenacoccusmanihoti.htm, Biassangama A, Fabres G, Nenon JP, 1988. The mealybug's body segmentation is apparent. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Zeddies J, Schaab RP, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 2001. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 147-155, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, 1988. EPPO Global database. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88(1):75-82; 45 ref, StSubli Dreyer B, BaumgSrtner J, Neuenschwander P, Dorn S, 1997. Ants attending mealybugs for their honeydew are known to defend the pests from natural enemies that would otherwise attack them. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Adults are pink, covered in white wax secretions, 1.10-2.6 mm long and 0.5-1.40 mm wide. With the exception of the longtailed mealybug, the mealy bug life cycle consists of an egg stage, a nymphal stage sometimes referred to as the âcrawlersâ stage, and the adult mealybug. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. Tropical Pest Management, 28(1):27-32, Nwanze KF, Leuschner K, Ezumah HC, 1979. On the basis of the exotic origin and rapid spread of the cassava mealybug in Africa, classical biological control has been the main and most appropriate approach to the pest problem. (Une cochenille nouvelle nuisible au manioc en Afrique Equatoriale, Phenacoccus manihoti n. sp. Jahn, G. C. and J. W. Beardsley (1998). Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); eggs/woolly ovisacs. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Fabres G, 1980. : Pseudococcidae) biological control program in Africa. Epizootiology of the fungus Neozygites fumosa (Zygomycetes, Entomophthorales) in a population of cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. Males are smaller, gnat-like and have wings. 1 - Development cycle and biological parameters. Agricultural Economics, 24(2):209-219; 36 ref. Santis L de, 1963. Nominal costs of the biological control programme 1979-2013 were estimated at US$ 34.2 million, with the peak annual cost of the programme coming to US$ 5.2 million in 1985. The components of the entomocoenose and their interrelations. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 70(2):366-371, Nsiama ShF HD, 1987. (Pseudococcidae) held at INERA-M'vuazi, Bas-Zaire, Zaire, June 26-29, 1977. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Matile-Ferrero D, 1978. Biological control of cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa. James B D, 1987. Cyanide content acts as a phagostimulant for the mealybug, whereas rutin has an antibiotic effect on the pest. Canadian Entomologist, 120(1):63-71, Sunil Joshi, Pai, S. G., Deepthy, K. B., Ballal, C. R., Watson, G. W., 2020. Pop. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. It may be advisable to discourage ants in cassava fields if this becomes a problem. Release and establishment in Nigeria of Epidinocarsis lopezi, a parasitoid of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti. In Asia, mango mealybug is considered a major menace for the mango crop. Large-scale and sustained field studies have, however, recorded excellent biological control of the pest by A. lopezi (Neuenschwander and Madojemu, 1986; Hammond et al., 1987; Gutierrez et al., 1988a,b; Neuenschwander and Hammond, 1988; Neuenschwander and Gutierrez, 1989; Neuenschwander et al., 1989a, 1989b; van Alphen et al., 1989; Hammond and Neuenschwander, 1990; Neuenschwander et al., 1990; Gutierrez et al., 1993; Chakupurakal et al., 1994; Neuenschwander and Ajuonu, 1995; Neuenschwander, 1996). by Nwanze K F, Leuschner K]. Biological Control At the first sign of slight infestation, smear the colonies of mealybugs with a â¦ Compendium record. ], [ed. Field biology of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, and its natural enemies in Zaire. of ref, Neuenschwander P, 2003. Length and breadth measurements are 0.30-0.75 mm and 0.15-0.30 mm, respectively (Matile-Ferrero, 1978; Nwanze, 1978). 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