This set of photos, declassified in 2011, consists of more photographs from the KH-9 HEXAGON mapping program. Here, we quantify changes in ice thickness during the intervals 1975–2000 and 2000–2016 across the Himalayas, using a set of digital elevation models derived from cold war–era spy satellite film and modern stereo satellite imagery.”, “The majority of the KH-9 images here were acquired within a 3-year interval (1973–1976), and we processed a total of 42 images to provide sufficient spatial coverage.”, “We observe consistent ice loss along the entire 2000-km transect for both intervals and find a doubling of the average loss rate during 2000–2016.”, “Our compilation includes glaciers comprising approximately 34% of the total glacierized area in the region, which represents roughly 55% of the total ice volume based on recent ice thickness estimates.”, You can read the complete paper by J. M. Maurer, et al., on the Science Advances website here: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/6/eaav7266. It was rebuilt in 2005 and named the Kok-Aral Dam…..The North Aral has stabilized but the South Aral has continued to shrink and become saltier. While such imagery access is relatively rapid, it still prevents individuals and organizations from accessing data that needs to be more immediate. [9] It used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. As of December 2018 there are 320 known military or dual-use satellites in the sky, half of which are owned by the US, followed by Russia, China and India (13).[1]. If you are just curious about seeing the most recent high-resolution image you can find for a given area of interest, and you don’t care about getting access to the raw images or using what you see for some commercial purpose, far-and-away the best tool you can use is Google Earth’s Explore New Satellite Imagery Tool. It is now only about 10% of the size it was in 1960…..In the 1990s, a dam was built to prevent North Aral water from flowing into the South Aral. KH-7 image resolution is 2 to 4 feet (0.6 to 1.2 meters). Example applications of declassified military reconnaissance satellite imagery. In the United States the first formal military satellite programs, Weapon System 117L, was developed in the mid 1950s. [10] The USAF had requirements for a more accurate and reliable navigation system, as did the United States Army for geodetic surveying [11] for which purpose they had developed the SECOR system. NRO developed several generations of classified Keyhole (KH) military optical reconnaissance satellites that have been the primary sources of Earth imagery for the US Department of Defense (DoD) and intelligence agencies. Experience Earth on any device See all Earth versions. They are deployed in geostationary orbit and provide wideband, narrowband and protected military communication systems. The US Armed Forces maintains international networks of satellites with ground stations located in various continents. [15], Since October 1967 satellite based weapons systems have been limited by international treaty to conventional weapons only. [2] Satellites within the Corona program carried different code names. [2] Within this program a number of sub-programs were developed including Corona. The KH-9 mapping camera was designed to support mapping requirements and exact positioning of geographical points. Images can be viewed online and full resolution images can be downloaded in NITF format.”, The can explore the CORONA Atlas & Referencing System here: https://corona.cast.uark.edu. This satellite offers military-grade imagery to the masses. Use imagery to analyse and report significant features and activity at military installations. Select any Military satellite listed to learn additional details, perform live tracking or see … By Olivia Solon. A military satellite is an artificial satellite used for a military purpose, often for gathering intelligence, as a communications satellite used for military purposes, or as a weapon. [2] Discoverer 1, the first mission, was launched on 28 February 1959 although it didn't carry a payload being intended as a test flight to prove the technology. Overview of US military optical reconnaissance satellite programs. The Atlas contains 833 archaeological sites. These sites are often clearly visible on CORONA imagery, enabling researchers to map sites that have been lost and to discover many that have never before been documented. Signal latency is a major concern in satellite communications, so geographic and meteorological factors play an important role in choosing teleports. The big question for a lot of people is: "What can they see?" SECOR used ground-based transmitters from known locations that sent signals to satellite transponder in orbit. High-resolution satellite imagery tracks the changing human footprint across the globe, including rapidly growing cities, urban sprawl, and informal settlements. You’ll find more information on the Landsat program on the USGS website here: https://www.usgs.gov/land-resources/nli/landsat, 3. For security reasons, there are no published orbit schedules for the imagery spacecraft. Launch in Earth. You’ll find more information on the NRO’s film-return, optical reconnaissance satellites (KH-1 to KH-9) at the following links: You’ll find details on NRO’s electronic optical reconnaissance satellites (KH-11, KH-12) at the following links: 6. However, the unique imaging geometry of the CORONA satellite cameras, which produced long, narrow film strips, makes correcting spatial distortions in the images very challenging and has therefore limited their use by researchers.”, CAST reports that they have “developed methods for efficient, orthorectification of CORONA imagery and now provides free public access to our imagery database for non-commercial use. This program has been superseded by the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS). By Olivia Solon. They are typically used to take overhead photos for military missions. The latest changes are being observed through satellite imagery at Hotan in occupied East Turkestan, now Xinjiang, which is one of the People’s Liberation Army Air Force’s (PLAAF) major fighter airbases. In the United States, research into satellite based weapons was initiated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1950s. The KH-11 flies long-duration missions and returns its digital images in near real time to ground stations for processing and analysis. In a 7 June 2016 article entitled, ”Spy satellites reveal early start to Antarctic ice shelf collapse,” Thomas Sumner reported: “Analyzing declassified images from spy satellites, researchers discovered that the downhill flow of ice on Antarctica’s Larsen B ice shelf was already accelerating as early as the 1960s and ’70s. Since the CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD data were no longer critical to national security and could be of historical value for global change research, the images were declassified by Executive Order 12951 in 1995”, You can read Executive Order 12951 here: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/WCPD-1995-02-27/pdf/WCPD-1995-02-27-Pg304.pdf. The UK government is pushing ahead with its plans for a cluster of military radar satellites, placing a design study with Airbus. The first satellite navigation system, Transit, used by the United States Navy, was tested in 1960. Operationally Response Satellite-1; Kestrel-Eye; Geostationary Imaging Satellites; 8X; FIA - Future Imagery Architecture to BASIC ; FIA RECSAT Concept; E … This mission was a series of reconnaissance satellites, designed to enter orbit, take high-resolution photographs and then return the payload to Earth via parachute. With imagery collected from the past two decades, along with so many different options available, we can offer high resolution imagery for nearly any place on Earth. The first US military optical reconnaissance satellite program, code named CORONA, pioneered the development and refinement of the technologies, equipment and systems needed to deploy an operational orbital optical reconnaissance capability. Resolutions for the sensors in this section range between 0.3 meter (the highest commercially available) to 1 meter. The KH-11, or an advanced version sometimes referred to as the KH-12, is operational today. The USGS explains: “The images were originally used for reconnaissance and to produce maps for U.S. intelligence agencies. In 1958, the United States initiated Project Defender to develop an anti-ICBM solution launched from satellites. Orbital Insight reports: “Orbital Insight turns millions of images into a big-picture understanding of Earth. The table of contents to the Earthshots webpages is shown below and is at the following link: http:// https://earthshots.usgs.gov/earthshots/, For the Aral Sea region, the Earthshots photo sequences start with ARGON KH-5 photos taken in 1964. The first generation of U.S. photo intelligence satellites collected more than 860,000 images of the Earth’s surface between 1960 and 1972. Not all KH-9 satellite missions included a mapping camera. Commercial Data In Use. Protected systems offer more sophisticated security protection like antijam features and nuclear survivability, while narrowband systems are intended for basic communications services that do not require high bandwidth. Free, browsable data. Use imagery to analyse and report on the status and activity of deployed military forces. During the Cold War, on the vast, barren flatland around Area 51's dried-up Groom Lake, the military developed a stealth spy plane code-named Project Oxcart. Image resolution is 20 to 30 feet (6 to 9 meters). In 1976, NRO deployed its first electronic imaging optical reconnaissance satellite known as KENNEN KH-11 (renamed CRYSTAL in 1982), which eventually replaced the KH-9, and brought an end to reconnaissance satellite missions requiring film return. A military satellite is an artificial satellite used for a military purpose. 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